Because interpretive researchers view social reality as being embedded within and impossible to abstract from their social settings, they “interpret” the reality though a “sense-making” process rather than a hypothesis testing process. As a researcher you will be curious to know the answers to your research questions. The evaluation stage examines the extent to which the initiated action is successful in resolving the original problem, i.e., whether theorized effects are indeed realized in practice. Interpretive research in information systems (IS) is now a well-established part of the field. During that process, she learnt and chronicled how chimpanzees seek food and shelter, how they socialize with each other, their communication patterns, their mating behaviors, and so forth. Despit… Action research is practitioner based research, with the main focus being the transformation of practice. Hence, such research requires an immersive involvement of the researcher at the study site for an extended period of time in order to capture the entire evolution of the phenomenon of interest. For the proponents of this research model, knowledge arises from the interaction between the researcher and the object of study. However, the failure of many positivist techniques to generate interesting insights or new knowledge have resulted in a resurgence of interest in interpretive research since the 1970’s, albeit with exacting methods and stringent criteria to ensure the reliability and validity of interpretive inferences. Some of these customs could be marriage, the most common forms of work, or family and social relationships of people. In response to this criticism, Giorgi and Giorgi (2003) [15] developed an existential phenomenological research method to guide studies in this area. Phenomenology is concerned with the systematic reflection and analysis of phenomena associated with conscious experiences, such as human judgment, perceptions, and actions, with the goal of (1) appreciating and describing social reality from the diverse subjective perspectives of the participants involved, and (2) understanding the symbolic meanings (“deep structure”) underlying these subjective experiences. To ensure dependability, interpretive researchers must provide adequate details about their phenomenon of interest and the social context in which it is embedded so as to allow readers to independently authenticate their interpretive inferences. - The proponents of this research model consider reality as something changing and dynamic, so they would be within phenomenological currents. Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods . Both are inseparable, because the mere fact of making an observation already changes the result of it. - Study of minority groups, such as homosexuals, people with disabilities or people of color, and what differences and difficulties they encounter in their day-to-day lives. This is followed by a … This chapter will explore other kinds of interpretive research. This scientific model is part of qualitative research, which seeks to study a topic in depth to fully understand it. - Regarding the relationship between the researcher and the object of study, both collaborate and communicate to achieve the best possible version of knowledge. The researcher’s choice of actions must be based on theory, which should explain why and how such actions may bring forth the desired social change. Retrieved on: March 17, 2018 from Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org. “see through the smoke” (hidden or biased agendas) and understand the true nature of the problem. Naturalistic Inquiry . This concept is similar to that of reliability in positivist research, with agreement between two independent researchers being similar to the notion of inter-rater reliability, and agreement between two observations of the same phenomenon by the same researcher akin to test -retest reliability. This is similar to the notion of objectivity in functionalistic research. See Kuhn’s seminal work for more on paradigms: Kuhn, T. (1962). Some researchers view phenomenology as a philosophy rather than as a research method. Hence, qualitative research is not amenable to statistical procedures such as regression analysis, but is coded using techniques like content analysis. ; Qualitative researchers are interested in meaning: ­how people make sense of their lives, experiences, and their structures of the world. In general, these documents emphasize the vulnerabilities of human subjects and the need to balance the benefits of knowledge generation against the risks of harm. The answers to the research questions can be solv… This research expands the boundaries and impact of the field by broadening the set of questions research can address. A review of literature from leaders in the field leads to a deep understanding of the meaning of a research paradigm. Retrieved on: March 17, 2018 More types of: mastiposde.com. From an ontological perspective, unlike the position of the positivist paradigm in which there is the belief that there is only one truth and that objective reality does exist independent of human perception, this study employs the constructivist view of reality and the essence of phenomenon. Qualitative research relies mostly on non-numeric data, such as interviews and observations, in contrast to quantitative research which employs numeric data such as scores and metrics. I published a paper a decade ago (Walsham, 1995) which addressed the nature of interpretive IS case studies and methods for doing such research. Since interpretive research rejects the notion of an objective reality, confirmability is demonstrated in terms of “inter-subjectivity”, i.e., if the study’s participants agree with the inferences derived by the researcher. In fact, all qualitative research should be interpretive in nature. Confirmability refers to the extent to which the findings reported in interpretive research can be independently confirmed by others (typically, participants). The most popular of these method is the participatory action research, designed by Susman and Evered (1978) [13] . Retrieved on: 17 March 2018 from Calameo: es.calameo.com. Figure 10.2. [14] Bluebond-Langer, M. (1996). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Data is collected in interpretive research using a variety of techniques. Interpretive research has several unique advantages. English Language Teaching, 5(9), pp.9–16. The interpretive research paradigm is characterized by a need to understand the world as it is from a subjective point of view and seeks an explanation within the frame of refer- ence of the participant rather than the objective observer of the action. Practitioners look at their own practice and try to improve it, and develop their understanding of it. For Blumer, scientific research has to be based on the subjective points of view of researchers; According to him, only by uniting his interpretations can true knowledge be reached. Transferability in interpretive research refers to the extent to which the findings can be generalized to other settings. Action taking is the implementation of the planned course of action. Rigor in interpretive research is viewed in terms of systematic and transparent approaches for data collection and analysis rather than statistical benchmarks for construct validity or significance testing. However, qualitative versus quantitative research refers to empirical or data -oriented considerations about the type of data to collect and how to analyze them. Second, the role of the researcher receives critical attention in interpretive research. He was one of the founders of the phenomenological movement, which has influenced the way of thinking of a large number of modern thinkers and scientists. Therefore, this is a specific way of perceiving the world (a worldview) … Interpretive research is a research paradigm (see Chapter 3) that is based on the assumption that social reality is not singular or objective, but is rather shaped by human experiences and social contexts (ontology), and is therefore best studied within its socio-historic context by reconciling the subjective interpretations of its various participants (epistemology). Naturalistic inquiry: Social phenomena must be studied within their natural setting. Such iterations between the understanding/meaning of a phenomenon and observations must continue until “theoretical saturation” is reached, whereby any additional iteration does not yield any more insight into the phenomenon of interest. Paradigms in Social Science. Hence, action research is an excellent method for bridging research and practice. Furthermore, the case researcher is a neutral observer (direct observation) in the social setting rather than an active participant (participant observation). Blumer was an American philosopher and researcher born at the beginning of the 20th century. Too little data can lead to false or premature assumptions, while too much data may not be effectively processed by the researcher. In other methods, such as case research, the researcher must take a “neutral” or unbiased stance during the data collection and analysis processes, and ensure that her personal biases or preconceptions does not taint the nature of subjective inferences derived from interpretive research. Interpretive research search for meaning in the activities of human beings. - The main research methods of the interpretive paradigm are observation and interview; each one will be used more or less depending on the specific object of study. Most of the research paradigms emerge from one of the two of the approaches to research that are positivist approach and interpretivism approach. The interpretive research paradigm views reality and meaning making as socially constructed and it holds that people make their own sense of social realities. Observational techniques include direct observation , where the researcher is a neutral and passive external observer and is not involved in the phenomenon of interest (as in case research), and participant observation , where the researcher is an active participant in the phenomenon and her inputs or mere presence influence the phenomenon being studied (as in action research). It also tries to understand individuals in the same way. This is an interactive design that assumes that complex social phenomena are best understood by introducing changes, interventions, or “actions” into those phenomena and observing the outcomes of such actions on the phenomena of interest. This author considered that it was fundamental to study the interpretations and meanings that people give to reality when they interact with it; in this way, he had a constructionist approach. - The cultural customs of the developed countries, how they have been produced and how they have changed in recent times. Therefore such studies are mostly conducted in laboratories. London: Sage Publications. Confirmability. For instance, if a study’s participants generally agree with the inferences drawn by a researcher about a phenomenon of interest (based on a review of the research paper or report), then the findings can be viewed as confirmable. Temporal nature: Interpretive research is often not concerned with searching for specific answers, but with understanding or “making sense of” a dynamic social process as it unfolds over time. Diagnosing involves identifying and defining a problem in its social context. Administrative Science Quarterly , (23), 582-603. Case research . 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