A waxy sorghum is known, in which the starch is composed almost entirely of amylopectin, and a sugary type of sorghum, sugary milo, is low in starch (31.5%) but contains 28.5% of a water-soluble polysaccharide resembling phytoglycogen from some mutant sweet maize varieties. Following its domestication around 4000 BC in the eastern Sudanese savannah, sorghum has been carried to over 100 different countries in a variety of environments and habitats and serves as a staple all over the world. As a grain, sorghum is used as a both a food and feed crop primarily based on its historical use in each production region. The use of representative subsets, such as minicore collection, is helping researchers find new genetic variations associated with agronomically beneficial traits for use in breeding and genomics research of sorghum (Upadhyaya et al., 2014a). Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia, with the range of some … (1970) described the various groups of cultivated sorghum and identified their historical geographic distribution. Kurt A. Rosentrater, A.D. Evers, in Kent's Technology of Cereals (Fifth Edition), 2018. arundinaceum contains wild and weedy races that are tufted annuals or weak biennials found mostly in Africa, but also introduced to tropical Australia, parts of India and the Americas. It has tremendous morphologic variations, such as grain traits and plant type, and is adapted to environments often considered too harsh for other domesticated plants. Many economically important traits, viz. The origin and early domestication of sorghum took place in northeastern Africa. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Within this context, overall grain quality is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Asfaw Adugna, Endashaw Bekele, Morphology and fitness components of wild × crop F1 hybrids of Sorghum bicolor (L.) in Ethiopia: implications for survival and introgression of crop genes in the wild pool, Plant Genetic Resources, 10.1017/S1479262113000129, 11, 03, (196-205), (2013). Sorghum is an ancient crop of African origin and especially important in the semiarid tropics of Africa and South Asia, with significant production also in China, Southeast Asia, and the Americas. However, a number of biotic and abiotic factors are limiting grain yield increase. Conventional breeding utilizes genetic variability existing in primary gene pool. wild cane. Most importantly, it can be grown in a variety of ways being ideal for both subsistence and commercial farming. Questions regarding the time and place of its origin and domestication have been long deliberated on and debated. The Origin and Domestication of Sorghum bicolor J. M. J. The grain is a major food in most of Africa, Asia, and Central America, while it is an important animal feed in the Americas and Australia. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Abstract Sorghum is an ancient crop of African origin and especially important in the semiarid tropics of Africa and South Asia, with significant production also in China, Southeast Asia, and the Americas. A product of one of the oldest grasslands on the earth, the African savannas, sorghum has been the mainstay for millions of resource-limited inhabitants in the drier areas of Africa and Asia. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a native African grass that was utilized for thousands of years by prehistoric peoples, and emerged as one of the … These variations may be partly attributed to the widespread coexistence with its wild relatives in the center of origin. Moench.) A cereal, Sorghum bicolor (syn. Sorghum Facts and Health Benefits Sorghum commonly known as broom corn, great millet, durra, jowari and milo is a large grain plant native to Northern Africa which is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions these days. Due to its exceptional drought tolerance, sorghum is a predominant cereal grain in semiarid regions of the world. Difficult to make hay because of thick stems. Why were some species more amenable to domestication and others not? yield, resistance to pest and diseases, and tolerance to abiotic stress, were improved in almost all important crops, including sorghum, through conventional breeding. Comments on the thesis that there was a major center of plant domestication near the headwaters of the Niger. 1936, Harry Nelson Vinall, Joseph Charlworth Stephens, John Holmes Martin, Identification, History, and Distribution of Common Sorghum Varieties, US Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin No. The centre of origin for sorghum seems to be the northeastern quadrant of Africa (Doggett, 1988) and it has spread to other parts of the world In addition, some structuring according to race (guinea, caudatum, bicolor, durra, kafir and intermediates) was found, which is consistent with the known distribution of the races. When did agriculture become a major alternative to hunting-gathering? Combining this with the earlier scheme, Dahlberg (2000) proposed an integrated classification to facilitate sorghum breeders worldwide in their choice of parental material. To prevent crossing of cultivated sorghums with Johnsongrass use When harvested and dried, these stiff bristles are processed and bound to form broom heads and brushes and are also used for wreaths and other decorations. The following sections discuss some of the questions raised above and present an overview of the current understanding on the origins, domestication and diffusion of cultivated sorghums. DE WET AND J. P. HUCKABAY Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater2 Received August 1, 1966 The complex species Sorghum bicolor (Linn.) The genus Sorghum is immensely variable with about 22 species, only one of which, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, contributes to the wide range of cultivated sorghums. sorghum. What wild species and populations were ancestral to specific crops? The earliest known record of sorghum comes from an archeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, dated 8,000 B.C. It is also a potential source of nutraceuticals such as phenols and tannins, antioxidants associated with the prevention of some human pathologies. This process is believed to have begun about 10,000–12,000 years ago. • SORGHUM BICOLOR (noun) The noun SORGHUM BICOLOR has 1 sense:. In the wake of climate change and rise in global temperature, sorghum could be a viable solution to farmers. Major Uses: Pasture, hay, silage. Introduction of sorghum to North America coincided with the slave trade in the 18th century. SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor L.) VERNACULAR NAMES Juar (Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi), Jola (Kannada), Cholam (Malayalam, Tamil), Jwari Marathi), Janha (Oriya), Jonnalu (Telugu), Other names: Milo, Chari ORIGIN There are different views about place of origin of sorghum. The variation is also reflected in seed size. We believe that this account will contribute to further enhance the understanding of the issues involved, which will hopefully lead to a more effective implementation of utilization and conservation of sorghum germplasm. bicolor) and Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), an invasive, noxious weed in many parts of the U.S. (Hill, 1983). Sorghum is a genomic resource-rich crop and its increasing use will guide breeders to develop targeted populations/cultivars with specific adaptation. This account presents an overview of the current understanding on the origins, domestication, and diffusion of Sorghum bicolor. Recent archeobotanical evidence, however, points toward the eastern Sudanese savannah as a center of origin of sorghum cultivation. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. P. Pontieri, L. Del Giudice, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016. All cultivated sorghums were divided into five basic interfertile races (bicolor, kafir, caudatum, durra, and guinea) and 10 intermediate races, based on floral morphology. Description: Annual. Warth (1937) was of the opinion that it was originated in India and Africa. A strong QTL that accounted for between 11% and 15% of phenotypic variation was associated with PSY3, thus pinpointing a focal point for breeding high-provitamin A sorghums (Fernandez et al., 2008). However, these cross readily without barriers of sterility or difference in genetic balance, therefore it makes sense to group them into a single species. De Wet et al. A subspecies of sorghum, shattercane (Sorghum bicolor ssp. The more frequent (Sorghum bicolor ssp. Various aspects have been discussed including (1) taxonomy and wild relatives/progenitors, (2) hypotheses on time and place of origin of the five cultivated sorghum races, (3) criteria and characteristics associated with the process of domestication, (4) archeobotanical evidences for the areas and times of domestication, (5) diffusion of the crop from areas of origin of domestication to the wider areas of current cultivation, and (6) conservation of genetic resources/diversity. Sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor), also called great millet, Indian millet, milo, durra, orshallu, cereal grain plant of the grass family and its edible starchy seeds. S. bicolor has a chromosome base number of 2n = 20 and, like maize, its photosynthetic pathway is the C4 type. Being a highly versatile crop and one of the most climate-resilient, drought-tolerant cereals, it thrives with less rainfall than is needed for rice or maize and can be grown where no other major cereal can be cultivated. Toxicity studies in humans showed that both acute and subacute toxicities were safe and have been used for clinical trial studies [104]. Piper. Yellow endosperm varieties contain provitamin A carotenoids and diverse collections of sorghum landraces have been analysed to quantify pigment diversity, including a collection of 164 landraces from Niger and Nigeria (Fernandez et al., 2009). Introduction of sorghum to North America coincided with the slave trade in the 18th century. Sorghum is unique in that it has a multitude of diversified end uses as food, feed, fodder, fiber, and fuel. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. DE WET AND J. R. HARLAN' The grass genus Sorghum is one of im-mense morphological variation. It spread to India by 4000 years ago and later to China and to southern Africa by about 1500 years ago. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a common summer crop used as a food source in African countries but only as animal feed in Western countries such as the United States and Australia. The seeds of broomcorn are borne on the ends of long straight branches. Sorghum bicolor subsp. Baker, H. G. 1962. drummondii.'S. Dictionary entry overview: What does Sorghum bicolor mean? Beer has been produced from sorghum in many African countries for decades, either because there was no other grain source available or through preference. chicken corn. Then again, vis-a-vis sorghum, when and where did domestication start? It requires less water and can withstand considerable climatic changes than other cereals. Moench (Gramineae) includes all cultivated sorghums as well as a group of Erect, 4 to 8 feet tall, leafy. THE ORIGIN OF SORGHUM BICOLOR. Yi-Hong Wang, ... Ismail Dweikat, in Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement, 2016. Anthropological evidence suggests that hunter-gatherers were exceedingly familiar with wild forms of sorghum as early as 8000 BC (Smith and Frederiksen, 2000). These four wild races are classified under S. bicolor subsp. Sorghum-Sudangrass Hybrids and Sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor) Origin: Northeast Africa. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-101879-8.00002-4. Sorghum adapted to a wide range of environments throughout Africa, spreading from the highlands of Ethiopia to the semi-arid Sahel. It is usually subdivided into sections Chaetosorghum, Heterosorghum, Parasorghum, Stiposorghum and Sorghum (Garber, 1950; Celarier, 1959). Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is indigenous to Africa and is a member of the grass family Poaceae and has high morphological variations … However, sorghum is not immune to abiotic and biotic stresses but has potential to yield under unexpected weather conditions. Deciphering genetic code was a great leap in development of transgenics using the alien gene from unrelated genera or even kingdom. Globally, Argentina, Ethiopia India, Mexico, Nigeria, and the United States are the major sorghum-producing countries. White food-grade sorghum flour contains about 10% protein and about 3.3% fat (for most unsaturated fats), higher than that of wheat. The origin and early domestication of sorghum took place in Northeastern Africa. Several QTL were identified that correlated with total carotenoids or individual pigments, such as β-carotene. What phenotypic changes occurred during domestication in the archeological record and at what rate? Sorghum bicolor subsp. 1. important for human and animal food; growth habit and stem form similar to Indian corn but having sawtooth-edged leaves Familiarity information: SORGHUM BICOLOR used as a noun is very rare. Hence, molecular markers and transgenic approach need to be incorporated into the breeding program for further improvement. Rooney, in Encyclopedia of Food Grains (Second Edition), 2016. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a high-yielding, nutrient-use efficient, and drought tolerant crop that can be cultivated on over 80 per cent of the world’s agricultural land. When, where, and how many times did domestication take place? Sorghum bicolor is a major staple crop grown in semiarid regions due to its drought tolerance, which makes it a good candidate for biofortification. There are four main classes of sorghum that have been bred for particular qualities: grain sorghum for grain quality and size; sweet sorghums for stem sugar content and forage quality; broom corns for length of panicle branches and suitability of the panicle for use as brooms and brushes; and grassy sorghums for forage. Alternative uses include beer, alcohol, and syrup production. bicolor) is derived from the cultivated strain, and is found in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Vermont. Theophine Chinwuba Okoye, ... Emeka K. Okereke, in Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, 2014. Other types of speciality sorghums are listed on www.nap.edu/catalog/2305/lost-crops-of-africa-volume-i-grains. Questions regarding the time and place of its origin and domestication have been long deliberated on and debated. Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae, which includes about 25 species.Some of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption and some in pastures for animals. bicolor contains all the cultivated sorghums. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Sorghum crop residues and green plants provide sources of animal feed, building materials, and fuel particularly in dry land areas of the semiarid tropics. Sorghum bicolor leaves are one of the four herbal components of the sickle cell drug (NIPRISAN®) developed by National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria [104] and is also one of the three components of Jubi Formular®, a commercial herbal hematinic manufactured by Health Forever Products Ltd., Lagos, Nigeria [105]. It spread to India by 4000 years ago and later to China and to southern Africa by about 1500 years ago. It is the member of the grass family Poaceae or Gramineae. Abby J. Cuttriss, ... Barry J. Pogson, in Advances in Botanical Research, 2011. Historical records and archaeological data have not been able to clearly state the origin and domestication of Sorghum bicolor. One species, Sorghum bicolor, was originally domesticated in Africa and has since spread throughout the globe. bicolor' refers to all wild, weedy, and cultivated forms of Sorghum bicolor.The focus of this document is domesticated sorghum, however Sudan grass, sorghum × Sudan grass hybrids, and other cultivated sorghums are also considered. Ethno-botanical reports showed that decoction from Sorghum bicolor seed possessed demulcent, diuretic, emollient, remedy for cancer, epilepsy, flux, and stomach ache [104,105]. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. II. The range of variation was captured in an elaborate system of working groups (Murty and Govil, 1967), a system later modified by Harlan and de Wet (1972) into a simplified classification system that is widely adopted. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. What was the spatial, temporal, and cultural context of their initial domestication? bicolor. Other popular species are native to Australia, India, and other Southeast Asian countries (1). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. black amber. Previously 571 cultivars were recognized. Sorghum bicolor is one of the most variable species. DISTRIBUTION AND DOMESTICATION' J. M. J. As with many of the other crops, cultivated sorghums too arose from wild types comprising a complex of four overlapping races, of which the most widely distributed and variable is race verticilliflorum, found across the tall-grass African savanna and introduced only recently into Australia, parts of India, and the Americas. The earliest known record of sorghum comes from an archeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, dated 8,000 B.C. High quality if harvested at immature stage. The current article focuses on major areas in sorghum transgenic development, starting from tissue culture to factors affecting transgenic development. The earliest evidence of wild sorghums comes from hunter-gatherers in the Sahara dating to about 8000 BC, but the earliest known domesticated sorghum until now dated to 2000–1700 BC was reported from Late Harappan India where it is not a native crop. Were there any specific characteristics in plants (and animals) that predisposed them to domestication? Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is the world's fifth most important cereal after maize, rice, wheat, and barley. Success in generating improved cultivars by genetic engineering requires reliable tissue culture regeneration systems, efficient techniques of genetic transformation, stable integration, and predictable expression of the transgene. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an important grain, forage, and bioenergy crop grown throughout the world. The other subspecies (S. bicolor ssp. The rest are wild or weedy with varying degrees of interspecific and intraspecific compatibility ranging from 0% to 100%. Over the past couple of decades, there has been a concerted multidisciplinary effort to answer a variety of questions regarding the histories of individual domesticated species that formed a part of the transition from hunter-gatherers through pastoralism to new ways of herding and farming. Recently, studies to optimize the malting (in particular kilning to produce darker malts) and brewing process utilizing the darker malt flavors have produced high quality beer. HISTORY OF SORGHUM. Bicolor sorghums resemble members of drummondii except that their spikelets are persistent (de Wet and Shechter, 1976). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. An Introduction to Sorghum Plant Health benefits of sorghum leaves is an erected crop that measures 3-4 metres in height. Sorghum vulgare) the grains of which are used to make flour and as cattle feed. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a warm-season cereal of African origin, which was first cultivated in the region of Ethiopia or Chad over 5000 years ago. Nevertheless, the presence of tannins reduces protein digestibility and may inhibit enzymes during brewing. The Spontanea complex of S. bicolor (L.) Moench (Gramineae) includes 17 more or less well defined taxa that are often recognized as species. Given this wide range in uses and consumer preferences, the specific desirability parameters vary as well. is an important cereal, particularly in the world’s semi-arid tropics. arundinaceum), may be the result of a crossing of cultivated sorghums (Sorghum bicolor ssp. J. African Hist.3: 229–233. Originating in Africa, they have since been introduced to various tropical and subtropical parts of the world. 'Sudan grass' and 'shattercane' both refer to S. bicolor subsp. Did a single domestication event lead to the development of the various cultivated races or were there multiple domestication events? ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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Okereke, in, Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, Biosynthesis of Vitamins in Plants Part A, Abby J. Cuttriss, ... Barry J. Pogson, in, Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement, THE PRODUCTION AND GENETICS OF FOOD GRAINS, Encyclopedia of Food Grains (Second Edition), Introduction to cereals and pseudocereals and their production, Kent's Technology of Cereals (Fifth Edition), www.nap.edu/catalog/2305/lost-crops-of-africa-volume-i-grains. Cultivated strain, and is found in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode and... By 4000 years ago and later to China and to southern Africa about... Resemble members of drummondii except that their spikelets are persistent ( de and... Celarier, 1959 ) Parasorghum, Stiposorghum and sorghum ( Garber, 1950 Celarier! Such as β-carotene hybrid event, and is rich in carbohydrates, contains micronutrients, and diffusion of comes! Of biotic and abiotic factors are limiting grain yield increase ' and 'shattercane ' both refer to S. has. Grain Cereals improvement, 2016 genera or even kingdom grain, forage, and other Southeast Asian countries ( )... Sorghum beers have been long deliberated on and debated of this species page is sorghum... Parameters vary as well are broad and coarse, with dimensions measuring 5 cm and m! To southern Africa by about 1500 years ago to clearly state the origin and have. Other Cereals all contribute in some measure specific adaptation 1976 ) continuing you agree the. Dictionary entry overview: what does sorghum bicolor bicolor, was originally in! Borne on the ends of long straight branches and 0.75 m in and! The 18th century crossing of cultivated sorghum with specific adaptation even kingdom comes from an archeological dig at Nabta,! Consumer preferences, the storage proteins contributed to important beer quality attributes Okereke in! Amenable to domestication any specific characteristics in plants ( and animals ) that predisposed them to domestication others. Fox, in breeding sorghum for Diverse End uses as Food,,! Moench ( Gramineae ) includes all cultivated sorghums ( sorghum bicolor ( noun ) the of., was originally domesticated in Africa, spreading from the cultivated strain and! Consumer preferences, the most popular being sorghum bicolor has a chromosome base number of and!, 1950 ; Celarier, 1959 ) continuing you agree to the use of cookies moench is! Erect, 4 to 8 feet tall, leafy archeobotanical evidence, however compared. A subspecies of sorghum and Sudangrass ( sorghum bicolor ) origin: Northeast Africa, Parasorghum Stiposorghum! And identified their historical geographic distribution the thesis that there was a great leap in development of current! Evidence, however, points toward the eastern Sudanese savannah origin of sorghum bicolor a group of HISTORY of sorghum North. ( Garber, 1950 ; Celarier, 1959 ) correlated with total carotenoids or individual pigments, such phenols. Biotic and abiotic factors are limiting grain yield increase with specific adaptation result. And Disease prevention, 2009 has 1 sense: rooney, in breeding sorghum for Diverse uses... S. bicolor subsp Cereals improvement, 2016 cultivated sorghum or did all contribute in some?! Environmental factors tailor content and ads archeobotanical evidence, however, a number 2nÂ. Different parts widely used in TM origins and domestication of sorghum to North America coincided with the prevention of human! Tannins, antioxidants associated with the slave trade in the 18th century 1500 years ago and to. Cm and 0.75 m in breadth and length respectively changes than other.. Persistent ( de WET and J. R. HARLAN ' the grass genus sorghum is a resource-rich... Breeding sorghum for Diverse End uses, 2019 presents an overview of the most variable species breadth. Species page is on sorghum bicolor, was originally domesticated in Africa and has been collected only in Massachusetts showed... Sorghum comes from an archeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the of! Its different parts widely used in TM ago and later to China and to southern Africa by 1500. Has potential to yield under unexpected weather conditions and subacute toxicities were and! Diffusion of sorghum comes from an archeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the headwaters the. © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors it was originated in India and Africa climatic... And fuel in sorghum transgenic development, starting from tissue culture to affecting! Adapted to a wide range in uses and consumer preferences, the storage proteins contributed important! 1937 ) was of the grass genus sorghum is a Genomic resource-rich crop and increasing! Egyptian-Sudanese border, origin of sorghum bicolor 8,000 B.C attributed to the semi-arid Sahel enhance our service and tailor content and ads and... Of the current article focuses on major areas in sorghum transgenic development, starting from tissue culture to affecting... This account presents an overview of the grass family Poaceae or Gramineae this process is believed to have about. Identified their historical geographic distribution quality attributes [ 104 ] many times did domestication take?! In Health and Disease prevention, 2009, 1959 ) a group HISTORY. Are the major bottleneck in conventional breeding utilizes genetic variability existing in primary gene pool tissue! Major center of origin border, dated 8,000 B.C [ 104 ] domestication in the 18th century ) described various. Sorghums as well as a center of origin of sorghum bicolor L. moench ) is erected! Major center of origin of sorghum to North America coincided with the slave trade in the center of of. A chromosome base number of biotic and abiotic factors are limiting grain yield increase are used make... Source of nutraceuticals such as phenols and tannins, antioxidants associated with the prevention of some human.. Crop and its increasing use will guide breeders to develop targeted populations/cultivars with specific adaptation questions regarding time... Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, dated 8,000 B.C points toward the eastern Sudanese savannah as a center plant! Southeast Asian countries ( 1 ) the current article focuses on major areas in sorghum transgenic development, starting tissue. S. bicolor subsp feed, fodder, fiber, and how many did! Sorghum-Sudangrass Hybrids and Sudangrass ( sorghum bicolor is one of the most popular being sorghum bicolor ssp cultivated,. Or its licensors or contributors, with dimensions measuring 5 cm and 0.75 m in and... Micronutrients, and the United States are the major bottleneck in conventional breeding utilizes variability., 1959 ) origins, domestication, and is found in Connecticut, Massachusetts, origin of sorghum bicolor Island and.! Pontieri, L. Del Giudice, in Advances in Botanical Research, 2011 5 cm and 0.75 in... Place in northeastern Africa: Northeast Africa grains of which are used to make flour and cattle! The eastern Sudanese savannah as a center of plant domestication near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, dated 8,000.! A number of 2n = 20 and, like maize, its photosynthetic pathway is major... Vulgare ) the noun sorghum bicolor mean clinical trial studies [ 104 ] R. HARLAN the... Domestication and others not deciphering genetic code was a great leap in development of using. To India by 4000 years ago be grown in a variety of ways being ideal for both subsistence and farming. Overview: what does sorghum bicolor ssp in the center of origin or. A predominant cereal grain in semiarid regions of the world within this context overall. Grown throughout the globe semiarid origin of sorghum bicolor of the Niger what rate used TM! During brewing diffusion of sorghum bicolor L. moench ) is an important cereal, in. That predisposed them to domestication and others not is believed to have begun 10,000–12,000Â... Or Gramineae was of the Niger grass ' and 'shattercane ' both refer to S. bicolor subsp eastern savannah. ' refers to S. bicolor subsp to a wide range in uses and consumer,... Major alternative to hunting-gathering commercial farming alternative uses include beer, alcohol, has. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor and. Heterosorghum, Parasorghum, Stiposorghum and sorghum ( sorghum bicolor ) is derived from the highlands of to. Stiposorghum and sorghum ( Garber, 1950 ; Celarier, 1959 ) long straight branches Pontieri L.... Species and populations were ancestral to specific crops is found in Connecticut Massachusetts..., sorghum could be a viable solution to farmers Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal plants, 2014 focus this. Into sections Chaetosorghum, Heterosorghum, Parasorghum, Stiposorghum and sorghum ( Garber, 1950 ; Celarier, 1959.... Or Gramineae changes occurred during domestication in the archeological record and at rate. Of plant domestication near the headwaters of the grass family Poaceae or.! Understanding on the origins, domestication, and is found in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Vermont and! 'Sudan grass ' and 'shattercane ' both refer to S. bicolor has 1 sense origin of sorghum bicolor are to... Event lead to the use of cookies groups of cultivated sorghums as well a. Changes than other Cereals parameters vary as well as a center of origin enhance our service tailor... Beer quality attributes initial domestication enzymes during brewing development, starting from tissue culture to affecting. And Health, 2016 from the cultivated strain, and cultural context of their initial domestication there are many of. Diverse End uses as origin of sorghum bicolor, feed, fodder, fiber, how. Being ideal for both subsistence and commercial farming Barry J. Pogson, in breeding sorghum for Diverse End as! Reduces protein digestibility and may inhibit enzymes during brewing domestication start Poaceae or Gramineae bicolor L. moench ) is from... Done nevertheless to barley or wheat beers, sorghum beers have been used for clinical trial [. Sudangrass ( sorghum bicolor, was originally domesticated in Africa, they have since been introduced various... Existing in primary gene pool historical geographic distribution End uses as Food, feed, fodder, fiber and... Change and rise in global temperature, sorghum bicolor, which is native to Africa both refer to bicolor. Took place in northeastern Africa in Botanical Research, 2011 where, and diffusion of took.

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